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Wunderlich, S., Griffiths, T., & Baines, F. (2024). Uvb-emitting leds for reptile lighting: Identifying the risks of nonsolar uv spectra. Zoo Biology, 43(1), 61–74. 
Added by: Sarina (2023-10-23 13:03:15)   Last edited by: Sarina (2024-02-09 14:32:59)
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Wunderlich2024
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Categories: Englisch = English
Keywords: hypervitaminosis D, photo-kerato-conjunctivitis, previtamin D3, vitamin D3
Creators: Baines, Griffiths, Wunderlich
Collection: Zoo Biology
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Added by: Sarina  
Abstract UVB lamps are used to provide reptiles housed indoors with the UV radiation necessary to synthesize vitamin D3 in their skin. Since 2019, UVB-LED lamps have been on sale for use in reptile husbandry. We performed spectral analysis and mapped the UV irradiance for 18 of these lamps. The positive benefits of UVB-LED lamps over traditional products include greater energy efficiency, freedom from mercury and easy installation without external ballasts. However, the spectra of all the UVB-LED lamps tested had little similarity to the solar UV spectrum. Some lamps emitted short-wavelength, non-terrestrial, radiation known to cause acute photo-kerato-conjunctivitis; we report one case. All lamps were lacking significant output in the range 315–335 nm, essential for natural self-regulation of cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis, preventing overproduction. We describe a possible risk of serious hypervitaminosis D based on our spectral analysis. We call for long-term animal studies to assess this risk, in which the reptiles under these lamps are exposed to species-appropriate UV index levels according to their Ferguson Zone allocation and serum levels of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 monitored. Spectral modifications of the lamps to make the spectrum more like sunlight may be an essential way of mitigating this risk.
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