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Calkins, D. J. (2001) Seeing with S cones. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 20 255–287. 
Added by: Sarina (07 Feb 2016 11:40:35 UTC)   Last edited by: Sarina (07 Feb 2016 11:42:33 UTC)
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00026-4
BibTeX citation key: Calkins2001
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Categories: Englisch = English
Creators: Calkins
Collection: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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The S cone is highly conserved across mammalian species, sampling the retinal image with less spatial frequency than other cone photoreceptors. In human and monkey retina, the S cone represents typically 5–10% of the cone mosaic and distributes in a quasi-regular fashion over most of the retina. In the fovea, the S cone mosaic recedes from a central “S-free” zone whose size depends on the optics of the eye for a particular primate species: the smaller the eye, the less extreme the blurring of short wavelengths, and the smaller the zone. In the human retina, the density of the S mosaic predicts well the spatial acuity for S-isolating targets across the retina. This acuity is likely supported by a bistratified retinal ganglion cell whose spatial density is about that of the S cone. The dendrites of this cell collect a depolarizing signal from S cones that opposes a summed signal from M and L cones. The source of this depolarizing signal is a specialized circuit that begins with expression of the L-AP4 or mGluR6 glutamate receptor at the S cone→bipolar cell synapse. The pre-synaptic circuitry of this bistratified ganglion cell is consistent with its S-ON/(M+L)-OFF physiological receptive field and with a role for the ganglion cell in blue/yellow color discrimination. The S cone also provides synapses to other types of retinal circuit that may underlie a contribution to the cortical areas involved with motion discrimination.

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