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Salisbury, F. B. (1981) Twilight Effect: Initiating Dark Measurement in Photoperiodism of Xanthium. Plant Physiology, 67 1230–1238. 
Added by: Sarina (16 Dec 2008 20:27:07 UTC)   
Resource type: Journal Article
BibTeX citation key: Salisbury1981
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Categories: Englisch = English
Keywords: Chronobiologie = Chronobiology, Mond = Moon, Pflanzen = Plants, Sonne = Sun
Creators: Salisbury
Collection: Plant Physiology
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Abstract
Six experiments studied the effects of low levels of red and far-red light upon the initiation of measurement of the dark period in the photoperiodic induction of flowering in Xanthium stunarium L. (cocklebur), a short-day plant, and compared effects with those of comparable light treatments applied for 2 hours during the middle of a 16-hour inductive dark period. Red Ught, or red plus far-red, at levels that inhibit flowering when applied during the middle of the inductive dark period, either had no effect on the initiation of dark measurement (ie., were perceived as darkness), or they delayed the initiation of dark measurement by various times up to the full interval of exposure (2 hours). Far-red Ught alone had virtually no effect either at the bnning or in the middle of the dark period. These results confirm that time measurement in the photoperiodic response of short-day Xanthium plants is not simply the time required for metabolic dark conversion of phytochrome. Results also suggest that the pigment system (phytochrome?) and/or responses to it may be significantly different as they function during twilight (initiation of dark measurement), and as they function during a Ught break several hours later. Possible mechanisms by which cocklebur plants detect the change from light to darkness are discussed. Comparing experimental results with spectral light measurements during twilght and with measurements of light from the full moon led to two conclusions: First, light levels pass from values perceived by the plant as full light to values perceived as complete darkness in only about 5.5 to 11.5 minutes, although twilight as perceived by the human eye lasts well over 30 minutes. Second, cocklebur plants probably do not respond to light from the full moon, even when most sensitive, 7 to 9 hours after the beginning of darkness.
Added by: Sarina  
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