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Stoddard, M. C., Eyster, H. N., Hogan, B. G., Morris, D. H., Soucy, E. R. & Inouye, D. W. (2020) Wild hummingbirds discriminate nonspectral colors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 
Added by: Sarina (23 Jun 2020 08:14:20 UTC)   
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919377117
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 0027-8424
BibTeX citation key: Stoddard2020
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Categories: Englisch = English
Creators: Eyster, Hogan, Inouye, Morris, Soucy, Stoddard
Collection: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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Popularity index: 49%
Meine Sichtweise (Keine vollständige Zusammenfassung des Artikels! Meine Meinung muss nicht mit der Meinung der Autoren übereinstimmen! Bitte lesen Sie auch die Originalarbeit!)   
Excellent and easy to read summary on national geographic:

Sehr gute und leicht zu lesende Zusammenfassung (auf Deutsch!) auf national geographic:

Added by: Sarina  
Birds have four color cone types in their eyes, compared to three in humans. In theory, this enables birds to discriminate a broad range of colors, including many nonspectral colors. Nonspectral colors are perceived when nonadjacent cone types (sensitive to widely separated parts of the light spectrum) are predominantly stimulated. For humans, purple (stimulation of blue- and red-sensitive cones) is a nonspectral color; birds{textquoteright} fourth color cone type creates many more possibilities. We trained wild hummingbirds to participate in color vision tests, which revealed that they can discriminate a variety of nonspectral colors, including UV+red, UV+green, purple, and UV+yellow. Additionally, based on an analysis of ~{}3,300 plumage and plant colors, we estimate that birds perceive many natural colors as nonspectral.Many animals have the potential to discriminate nonspectral colors. For humans, purple is the clearest example of a nonspectral color. It is perceived when two color cone types in the retina (blue and red) with nonadjacent spectral sensitivity curves are predominantly stimulated. Purple is considered nonspectral because no monochromatic light (such as from a rainbow) can evoke this simultaneous stimulation. Except in primates and bees, few behavioral experiments have directly examined nonspectral color discrimination, and little is known about nonspectral color perception in animals with more than three types of color photoreceptors. Birds have four color cone types (compared to three in humans) and might perceive additional nonspectral colors such as UV+red and UV+green. Can birds discriminate nonspectral colors, and are these colors behaviorally and ecologically relevant? Here, using comprehensive behavioral experiments, we show that wild hummingbirds can discriminate a variety of nonspectral colors. We also show that hummingbirds, relative to humans, likely perceive a greater proportion of natural colors as nonspectral. Our analysis of plumage and plant spectra reveals many colors that would be perceived as nonspectral by birds but not by humans: Birds{textquoteright} extra cone type allows them not just to see UV light but also to discriminate additional nonspectral colors. Our results support the idea that birds can distinguish colors throughout tetrachromatic color space and indicate that nonspectral color perception is vital for signaling and foraging. Since tetrachromacy appears to have evolved early in vertebrates, this capacity for rich nonspectral color perception is likely widespread.
Added by: Sarina  
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